Global AIDS Epidemic.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are among the most complex health problems of the 21st century . The year 2011 marked 30 years since the discovery of AIDS, which has claimed more than 25 million lives. More than 60 million people have been infected with HIV, and more than 90% of the cases occurred in developing countries . In Asia, approximately 4.9 million (4.5 million–5.5 million) people were infected with HIV in 2009. Most national HIV epidemics appear to have stabilized . The estimated number of children younger than 15 years, who are living with HIV increased significantly, from 140,000 (92,000–190,000) in 2005 to 160,000 (110,000–210,000) in 2009 .
AIDS Epidemic in China.
The first HIV case in China was reported in 1985 and the epidemic spread began in 1989 through injecting drug users. In rural areas of China, 31% provinces have reported cases of HIV , . In 2009 according to the Chinese Ministry of Health there were 326,000 people living with HIV and of these 107,000 had AIDS . In China the AIDS epidemic is complex with some populations effected more than other .
HIV/AIDS in Hubei Province.
Hubei province which lies in central China, in the middle of the Yangtze River with an area of 186,000 square kilometers and a population of 65 million. It is estimated that 45,000 people are HIV positive and that 83% of HIV cases are due to illegal commercial blood selling in 1990’s similar to the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, Anhui and Guangdong , , .
Young people are at high risk for HIV/AIDS infections . Lack of knowledge about AIDS prevention makes them more vulnerable to HIV infection . As a transitional step from children to adulthood, adolescence is a crucial period for fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors to protect people from diseases . Thus, fostering healthy behaviors among adolescents may be more essential for the prevention of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behaviors in the general population . Young people are valuable parts of the society, and they will be a powerful against the transmission of HIV in the future. Their opinions, attitudes, and behaviors play critical roles in constructing a compassionate social environment that is free from discrimination for people living with HIV/AIDS .
In China, schools are the primary locations where young people acquire knowledge and skills. School-based HIV/AIDS health education can be more efficiently operated and delivered than other programs that prevent the spread of AIDS .
Most of the previous studies on student s’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) about HIV/AIDS in Hubei province were conducted among university students . Secondary schools in Hubei province seldom carry out KAB research and provide systematic education to prevent HIV/AIDS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study in Hubei province on the existing levels and types of KAB of secondary students with regard to HIV/AIDS. The aim of this school-based study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational prevention program on HIV/AIDS, particularly in relation to the KAB of secondary school students, to provide theoretical and practical information for decision-makers.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are among the most complex health problems in the world. Young people are at high risk of HIV and AIDS infections and are, therefore, in need of targeted prevention. School-based HIV/AIDS health education may be an effective way to prevent the spread of AIDS among adolescents.
The study was a school-based intervention conducted in three middle schools and two high schools in Wuhan, China, which included 702 boys and 766 girls, with ages from 11 to 18 years old. The intervention was a one-class education program about HIV/AIDS for participants. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and high-risk behaviors were investigated using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire before and after the education intervention. Chi-square test was used to compare differences before and after the intervention. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors that affect HIV/AIDS knowledge.
Misconceptions about basic medical knowledge and non-transmission modes of HIV/AIDS among all the students prevail. Approximately 10% to 40% of students had negative attitudes about HIV/AIDS before the intervention. After the intervention, all of the students had significant improvements in knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS (P<.05), indicating that educational intervention increased the students’ knowledge significantly and changed their attitudes positively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that before the intervention the students’ level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly associated with grade, economic status of the family, and attitudes toward participation in HIV/AIDS health information campaigns.
HIV/AIDS education programs were welcomed by secondary students and positively influenced HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes. A systematic and long-term intervention among secondary school students must be conducted for the prevention of HIV.